JPRS 74808 21 December 1979

USSR Report


No. 908



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JPRS 74808 21 December 1979



ELECTRIC POWER AND POWER EQUIPMENT Plans for Increasing Nuclear Reactor Production at

Izhorskiy Plant Discussed (Vv. Senin; PRAVDA, 19 Nov 79) eeeeeeeeneeeeneeeeeeneeneenee ]


Tol'yatti Prepares for Winter (F. Turkin;s IZVESTIYA, 1 Sep 79) eeeeseeoeeeeeeeeeeeeeees 6

Power Workers Prepare for Winter (RABOCHAYA GAZETA, 29 Sep 79) eeeeseeeceeeeeeeeeeeeeeeneeneene 10

Moscow Readies fur Winter Heating Season (B. V. Nikol'skiy Interview; LITERATURNAYA GAZETA, 17 Oct 79) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee 13 FUELS AND RELATED EQUIPMENT

Petroleum Industry Development (N. A. Mal'tsev; NEFTYANOYE KHOZYAYSTVO, Sep 79) eee. 20

Advances in Drilling Operations (V. I. Mishchevich; NEFTYANOYE KHOZYAYSTVO, Sep 79)... 30

Development of Flooding Methods (E. M. Khalimov; NEFTYANOYE KHOZYAYSTVO, Sep 79).ccee. 36

Industrialization of Petroleum Industry Construction (Sh. S. Dongaryan; NEFTYANOYE KHOZYAYSTVO, Sep 79).... 43

-=a- [III - USSR - 37]

CONTENTS (Continued)

CEMA Cooperation in Petroleum Industry Devel opment (D. A. Takoyev; NEFTYANOYE KHOZYAYSTVO, Sep 79)

Alteration of Direction of Filtration (A. I. Bashurkin, et al.; NEFTYANOYE KHOZYAYSTVO,

Sep 79) eeeeoeoceaceaoeoeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee

Water-Soluble Polymers for Pipeline Cleaning (I. N. Poraykov, V. Kh. Galyuk; NEFTYANOYE KHOZYAYSTVO, Sep 79) @eeeeeoaeoceececeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee

Thermal Method of Recovering Petroleum From Mines (D. V. Danysh, Ye. I. Gurov; NEFTYANOYE KHOZYAYSTVO,

Sep 79) eeeeoeoeaceaeeeeeenvneeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee ee






[article by V. Senin, PRAVDA correspondent, Leningrad: "Behind the Lines of the Decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress": "'Nuclear Machine Building' on the Izhora"/

[text] “Organize series production for nuclear electric power stations of thermal reactors and turbogenerators for them with a unit output of not less than 1 million kilowatts." (From "Primary Areas for USSR Economic Development for 1976-1980"),

The "Izhorskiy Plant" Association is the chief supplier of nuclear steam generating plants, including 1 million kilowatt reactors, for AES's. Experts estimate that placing a VVER [water-moderated water-cooled power reactor/-1000 into service saves tens of millions of rubles. The Izhorskiy Flant is now preparing to increase power reactor potential 1.5-fold.

The development of nuclear machine building naturally requires great efforts from the collective.

Since the onset of the 10th Five-Year Plan, the base for production of such equipment has been developing rapidly. Scientific research has doubled, and approximately 80 of the 400 engineering innovations are inventions.

The level of mechanization and automation in the basic operation--welding-- has reached 85 percent. The most progressive production processes have been assimilated, and plasma-mechanical types of machining of ingots and parts have been developed,

The efficiency of the engineering solutions is largely determined by the business ties botween the Izhorskiy Plant and the scientists and leading specialists of 40 enterprises and organizations. Cooperation has been secured by contracts. Among the partners are the Institute of Arc Welding imeni Ye. O. Paton, the Central Scientific Research Institute of Machinery Manufacturing Technology, the Leningrad Scientific-Production Association for Research and Design of Electrical Equipment imeni I. I. Polzunov, the

Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Equipment imeni Yefremov, and the Polytechnical Institute. ... The joint creative activity makes it possible to quickly realize progressive scientific projects and expeditiously solve the most complex production problems.

Here is an example of one such problem. Reactor housings have special requirements. And this is quite natural: the burn-up of nuclear fuel yields a huge amount of thermal energy. Neutron radiation is also intense. Within a year or two, the most durable metal is made brittle. The Izhorskiy Plant guarantees the faultless service of the reactor for 30 to 40 years. Mediwn gage Izhorskiy steel reliably withstands the all- lestructive force of the atom.

"We had housing steel equal to the world's best before too," notes L. Tupitsyn, general director of the association. "We used it to make the 410,000 kilowatt reactors. But an especially durable brand was needed for the million kilowatt ones: resistant to radiation, not prone to erosion, and yielding to forging, heat treatment and welding. And in large ingots-- over 100 tons each."

Scientists at th: Central Scientific Research Institute of Machinery Manu- facturing Technolugy helped the Izhorskiy Plant creatly. And the plant already had engineering capabilities. The thermal shop was remodeled, vacuun chambers for casting steel were built, and a new open-hearth shop with furmace capacity up to 125 tons was placed into operation. But an ingot weighing almost 300 tons was needed to forge a million kilowatt turborenerator shaft. What to do?

Practice will suggest the solution here. The notable steelmakers Hero of Socialist Labor S. I. Ll'in, V. I. Yasakov, A. I. Malyshev and V. I. Bagreyev are experienced workers at the Izhorskiy Plant. They know quite

a lot about smelting metal. But reactor steel became the summit of the trade. The plant's skilled craftsmen produced metal of the highest sample from two open-hearth furnaces simultaneously after raising furnace thresh- olds and thereby increasing volume, and holding fire conditions to a second. A labor feat! There is no other way to describe it. The skill of the experts helped assimilate the manufacture of the ingots and organize forging turbine and rotor shaft billets from them, heat treatment and plasma-mechanic turning.

It seemed that after producing the needed steel, the Izhorskiy plant workers would have cleared the main problem from the agenda. But a reactor housing has meny weld joints and the requirements for them are even higher. Each weld is checked in seven inspection steps. It is tested by ultra- sonics and thoroughly examinea with X-rays. A traditional manual weld does not pass so critical a test. And the operation itself is difficult: the parts were heated to 400 degrees before welding. Astcstos linings barely protected the worker, and one slight slip up causes rejection. How was welding quality to be brought up to the nuclear class?

The answer is clear in principle: mechanize and automate the process.

Thus manipulators which would ma. > welds better than a man could wouid be needed. None had yet been produced. They tackled the problem themselves. On the initiative of the party committee, a coordinating council was set up and headed by Yu. Sobolev, chief engineer of the association. Scientists from the Institute of Arc Welding imeni Ye. 0. Paton came to the shops. Together with Izhorskiy plant workers and colleagues from the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Arc Welding Equipment, they assembled and tested new equipment. Seveiral manipulators at once--for welding housings and fusing the internal design of the butts of the branch connections. Scientific associates V. Kovalev and L. Sevruk accepted offers of enyineer- ing positions at the plant. This, by the way, helped them in their work

on their dissertations.

While the new equipment was being set up, specialized production was developed. Sarlier, reactor housings, upper block caps and steam genera- tors were made in different shops. Now everything is concentrated in one piace. Closed sections were organized to make the units and sections. This facilitated the introduction of brigade cost accounting. The people do not divide up their duties and switched to a continuous schedule.

The collective produced and delivered on schedule the equipment for the million kilowatt power unit for the Novovoronezhskaya AES. The reactor was transported on a special rail flatcar. The association has now begun series production of the "million kilowatt units." Thus, as a result of the creative cooperation of scientists and specialists, with the most active participation of the experienced workers, the Izhorskiy Plant carried out a major aspect of the decisions of the 25th CPS!J Congress.

Fine prerequisites were laid for fresh advances. In the next five-year plan, Izhorskiy plant workers will have to considerably increase their output of AES equipment.

The shops where manufacture of the nuclear power units began are now being reorvanized. New structures are being erected and highly productive equip- ment installed. The first phase of a modern forging-pressing shop is now coming into operation. Assembly and check-out of an automated forging com- plex with a 6,000 ton-force press and two heavy duty manipulators is being completed here. A 5,000 ton-force rclling press to make shells with a diameter of up to seven meters, as well as a modernized press with a force of 12,000 tons will be installed later.

ihe forge-press shop is linked with the electric steel smelting shop. The stripping-heat treatment wing with an area of 45,000 square meters will soon be filled with working din. And immediately after that, modernization of the operating heat treatment shops and sections will begin. But here is what worries the collective. The new equipment: the overall dimensions of the sets, and the sizes of the shafts and shells for the reactors are placing increased requirements on the subcontracting design organizations. For example, the herdening furnaces must be larger than projected. And the

proper units which are not yet available are needed. It is evident that the appropriate amendments must be made by the design association "Energomashproyekt"™ /A1-Union Planning and Technological Institute of Tower Machinery hanufacture/ and the "Gipromez" /State All-Union Institute for the Ilanning of Metallurgical Plants/ without disrupting the schedule for preparing project documentation.

The construction of the sheet mill "5000" is perhaps an especially impor- tant element. It will provide not only the Izhorskiy Plant, but also "“Atommash" with high quality steel sheets and plates of the required para- meters. In other words, the rates of development of nuclear power machin- ery manufacture and thus the construction of nuclear fueled power stations depend on the start up of this rolling complex. How do matters stand here? The project was approved long ago. The plant is impressive. Auxiliary-- heat treatment, etching-trimming ind other shops will be connected to it. A problem is arising here which requires attention by USSR Gosplan, USSR Gosstroy and the construction ministries. The retes of construction are lagging severely.

During the five years of construction of the sheet rolling complex, only 30 million rubles worth of work has been completed, that is less than four percent of the estimated cost. And initial production is expected within two years. A special contract organization--trust No. 35 of the vlavzanstroy /Territorial Main Administration for Constzuction in the western Regions of the RSFSR/--has been set up to mode:tiize the enterprise. As stated already, quite a lot has been done by it. However, today the capacities of the trust are exhausted. Both the central board and the USSR Ministry of Construction have shown little concern for a sound production base. “eanwhile the annual amount of work is increasing to 90 million rubles. Local builders suggest a number of measures which in their esti- mate would make it possible to reach the planned rates. Just what is needed? First of all, recruit almost 4,000 workers, To secure the cadres, an additional 150,000 square meters of living space must be introduced.

It is especially important to develop the construction base of the trust. Territory has been allocated for it, but except for a garage there is nothing on it. Even the ready mixed concrete has to be hauled dozens of Kilometers. According to the plan, there should be an on-site reinforced concrete shop, an asphalt-concrete plant, a steel section shop, workshops and a PTU /vocational and technical school/ for training the workers here. It is time to bring the vehicle pool up to estimated standards. Izhorskiy plant workers believe that USSR Gosplan should make the amount of capital investments a separate line item in the plan of those ministries and departments associated with this huge project. USSR Gossnab should allot materials and equipment in a balanced manner, It is quite clear: the capacities of trust No. 35 should be brought into full accordance with the planned amount of work. For now though, the USSR Ministry of Construction and the Glavzapstroy should be setting up a continuous supply of materials and equipment from other trusts where there are reserves.

And here is still another :. less importent aspect to the matter. The sheet rolling complex is 136,000 tons of rolling equizment, The Izhorskiy workers can manufacture 5,000-7,000 tons per year themselves. Where is the rest to come from? Unfortunately, suppliers are showing resistance, They look for any excuse--as long as they do not have to accept the order.

Among the chief enterprises for production of the units for the mill "5000 is the "Novokramatorskiy Machinery Flant" association, but of the planned 23,000 tons, not a grain of iron has been shipped to the Izhora by it.

USSR Gosplan and USSR Gossnab should also intervene in this céese.

. « » A major industrial complex is czrowing up on the banks of the Izhora River. It has become a progressive bulwark of technica) progress of domestic industry. The multi-thousand collective of workers, engineers and scientists is laying the main foundation for nuclear power machinery manufacture which is being rapidly developed and is making a worthy contribution to carrying out the decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress.



[Article by F. Turk n, Cheirman of the Executive Committee, Tol'yatti Municipal Soviet of ®: rkers‘ Deputies: "Not Waiting For the Cold"

[Text] The industry of Tol'yatti includes 27 industrial enterprises. These include the gigantic Volga Automobile Plant, taree chemical and petrochemical] industrial combines, a cement machine construction plant, the '"ransformer" production combine, large construction and building organizations and enter- prises of the construction industry and transport industry. The industrial and economic potential of the city is continuously growing. The population is increasing: there are already more than half a million citizens. The system of schools, stores, restaurants and nurseries is being expanded. The housing fund is increasing quickly.

It is clear that it is not easy to prepare such a large and complex organiza- tion as our municipal economy for winter conditions. However, it is necessary to prepare persistently and seriously. We were reminded once again of this by the past winter, which taught a serious lesson to all of those who did not show sufficient exactingness toward themselves and others in carrying out what had been planned and those who hoped for "luck".

Winter was a serious test for us in Tol'yatti. It showed that we cannot leave even one seemingly minor problem unsolved in the period before winter. The CPSU Municipal Committee and the Executive Committee of the Municipal Soviet carefully analyzed the lessons of the difficult past winter. They critically evaluated the lack of administrative capabilities, carelessness and irresponsibility of certain officials. It was immediately decided to plan in advance the entire system of measures which could eliminate a repeti- tion of these failures and errors.

Where did we begin in preparing for the forthcoming winter? The progress in the preparation of enterprises, organizations and installations of the city fo. operation under the conditions of the winter of 1979-1980 was discussed in detail at one of the sessions of the Municipal Executive Committee. The Municipal Soviet Executive Committee ordered that all economic leaders take

a}l steps necessary in order to ensure reliable and uninterrupted operation in winter of all enterprises of Tol'yatti and all links of the great city economy. A municipal commission was set up to supervise and help the enterprises in this work. Such commissions were later founded and are now operating in each of the three districts of the city, and headquarters for winter preparations are functioning at all enterprises.

Uninterrupted and reliable operation of the energy supply system is of decisive significance for normal activity in any city during winter. The past winter caused many difficulties, such as interruptions in the delivery of fuel, primarily gas, to Tol'yatti. The supply of heat to certain apart- ment tuildings in the city was made extremely difficult by the Jack of stock- piles at the Tol'yatti Electric Power Station and the Volga Aute™sobil« Plant Thermoelectric Power Station.

Nevertheless, this was a good lesson. Such stockpiles are now being created. Work is underway at the Tol'yatti Thermoelectric Power Station to repair and rebuild equipment, and a powerful new boiler will go into operation in Septem- ber at the Volga Automobile Plant Thermoelectric Power Station. During the forthcoming heating season it will ensure normal operation of stations, even with new fuel consumers taken into consideration. However, if work is pro- ceeding according to schedule at the Volga Automobile Plant Thermoelectric Power Station, the situation is somewhat poorer at the municipal Thermoelectric Power Station: due to the lack of skill among the specialists, it is taking longer to repair equipment.

The Tol'yatt! ° «moelectric Power Station needs help, and this is being given by the enterprises of the city. However, we are not able to solve all prob- lems ourselves. We hope that the Ministry of Energy of the USSR will find additional capabilities for helping the minicipa: Thermoelectric Power

Station with qualified cadres of repairmen. We need more of them today than usually.

Another problem which the city cannot solve itself is the supply of coal to the Tol'yatti Thermoelectric Power Station. Last summer and fall it operated with a two and three day reserve of coal in the storehouse due to failures

to deliver on the part of the Kuz'ma coal fields and a reduction in the delivery fund. In addition, the coal was generally delivered in a very spotty manner and violated the Stute Standards. It is fully clear that this caused idle time of the railway cars when unloading. Furthermore. by the end of the winter season there was practically no coal stockpile at ail at the Tol'yatti Thermoelectric Power Station and its operation was interrupted.

The fund for coal deliveries to the city was reduced in the third quarter. However, the Kuz'ma coal fields did not even meet these reduced delivery requests. The shortage was especially acute in August. At the same time, almost half of the deliveries for fuel oil to the Volga Automobile Plant Thermoelectric Power Station were not met.

This was, as they say, a painful lesson. However, now I will tell about certain innovations which typify the preparation of the city for the coming winter. For example, we have introduced the readiness certificate. [t is issued to industrial enterprises, organizations and housing projects which have prepared for work under winter conditions. The heads of the district comissions sign these readiness certificates, and everyone must receive this certification of readiness for winter.

These documents force economic leaders to move quickly, to be exacting toward themselves and to efficiently correct shortcomings. Everyone in the city knows about the readiness certificates, and therefore each worker, engineer and employee on whom the preparation of the city for winter depends is filled with a sense of personal responsibility for it.

Another innovation of ours is the development of special instructions and popularization of them at the enterprises. The idea of these is "Winter Without Surprises". Now, they know at each enterprise who must do specifi- cally what in the period of heavy frost, as well as in cases of shortages of electricity, heat and fuel.

This year, as never before, we are energetically improving the heating system for the city. This work includes completing the construction of the North- western Main Heating Line. connecting it to the heating system along Gor'kiy Street, constructing a gas distribution substation and high pressure gas lines in the village of Shlyuzovoy, placing the steam lines and connections in operation from Novozavodskaya Street to the Eastern Main Line and building new boilers.

Of course, the municipal executive committee devotes the most careful atten- tion to preparing schools, hospitals, nurseries, cafeterias and other social and cultural installations for winter. We are doing everything possible so that the winter breakdowns in municipal transport will not be repeated and so that the streets and squares will be promptly and regularly cleared in winter. Housing projects and the preparation of vegetable and potato storehouses for winter have not been forgotten.

In preparing the city for winter, the municipal Soviet relies daily on the permanent commissions, deputies' groups and posts. The majority of deputies skillfully use their authority and properly examine and solve many practical problems. Central District Deputies' Group No. 4 which is headed by the blacksmith from the concrete and steel structure factory V. Berestov has gained authority among the residents of its subdistrict. Not a single proposal or observation from the electors relating to the preparation of the subdistrict for the cold weather has been overlooked by the group. Recently, the leaders of the communal housing departments were questioned on this matter at a meeting of the group.

One of the best deputies' groups works in the synthetic rubber plant. It consists of 53 deputies from local Soviets and is headed by the machinist

from this plant M. Parasyuk. The economy of the enterprise is very complex, with the majority of the production equipment and entire units operating in the open. It is not simple to ensure rhythmand precise operation of this chemical giant, especially in winter. Therefore, the deputy-chemists to- gether with the factory people's monitors are now conducting surprise inspections and requiring reports from the heads of shops and services on

the fulfillment of the plans for the preparation for winter at their meetings. Deputies! monitoring posts have been set up in sections where new construction is under way. A great amount of work has been done at the plant and many important problems relating to the preparation for winter have been solved.

The deputies' groups at the Volga Automobile Plant, the Volga Cement Machinery Plant, the electrotechnical plant and other enterprises are working with initiative in this peried. When you pass through the city, you will see the Signs "Deputies Post'"'. We have 86 of them, combining approximately 300 deputies from municipals and district Soviets. Many posts have been set

up directly at energy supply objectives. Post No. 14 consisting of deputies from the Central District Soviet N. Sysuyeva and A. Yegorova is outstanding. It was set up at the district boiler plant where, as is clear, prompt super- vision by the deputies is especially important.

I would like to emphasize that we are not striving to ensure normal operation of the municipal economy, including the communal economy and to supply the citizens of Tol'yatti with sufficient fuel in winter at any price. We will do this wisely and economically, not permitting excessive consumption of fuel and electricity. The citizens of Tol'yatti remember the order for strict economy well, and we have placed this requirement, “or saving on both the large and small scales, as an inviolable requirement in all of our tire- less work to prepare for the new heating season. Therefore, every last detail which would make it possible to save fuel is accounted for in the plans compiled at the enterprises. Such scrupulous thrift will save the nation hundreds of tons of fuel, thousands of kilowatts of electricity and much money.

Preparation of a large industrial city for winter conditions is a difficult task. A goal-oriented combination of the efforts of the municipal Party organizations, the executive committee of the municipal Soviet, the workers of industry, production and communal economy and wide circles of society will bring success.

7872 CSO: 1822



[Text] Measures to ensure an uninterrupted energy supply to the national economy in the fall and winter of 1979-1980 and efficient consumption of fuel, electricity and heat were discussed at the zonal conference held on 28 September in Khar'kov. Secretaries of Party oblast committees, the deputy chairmen of the oblast executive committees and the Kiev municipa. executive committee, heads of industrial-transport departments of oblast and municipal Party committees, workers from people's monitoring organs, the heads of energy combines, electric power stations, and railroads, the heads and chief power workers of ministries and departments and the heads of a number of industrial enterprises in the Ukraine and Moldavia were invited to it.

The Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR A. A. Burmistrov opened the meeting.

In their reports, the Minister of Energy and Electrification of the Ukrainian SSR A. N. Makukhin and the chief of the Main Energy and Electrification Directorate of the Council of Ministers of the Moldavian SSR V. P. Karpov emphasized that the important task now is to ensure a reliable energy supply to industry, agriculture, communal enterprises and the populace in the forth- coming period of maximum requirements. The efforts of the production col- lectives should be directed toward careful and thorough preparation of enterprises and organizations for operation under winter conditions, toward a further improvement in the efficiency with which fuel and energy resources are used and toward unquestioning fulfillment of instructions on economy in then.

The lessons of the past winter were analyzed from these positions. It was noted that the supply of electricity to consumers was basically reliable. However, it was not possible to avoid certain difficulties. In particular, certain units at the Voroshilovgrad State Area Power Plant operated with low reliability and one of the units at the Uglegorod State Area Power Plant was under repair for a long time. The operation of heating systems broke down in Odessa.


Appropriate conclusions should be drawn from such facts pointed out at the meeting and they should not be permitted to recur in the future. Unfailing attention should be devoted to ensuring that new energy capabilities are placed in operation and to prompt repair of modular equipment. The speakers and those giving reports spoke against those delivering enterprises and supply organs which do not always promptly supply power workers with spare parts and materials.

Pressing tasks are improving the reliability of electrical power transmission lines, including those serving rural consumers and perfecting the work of fuel transport organs, the preparation of which should be taken under the personal supervision of the heads of power combines and electrical power stations. It is necessary to show concern about developing sufficient facilities for unloading fuel in order to avoid excessive idle time of railroad cars under difficult weather conditions.

One of the main factors on which efficient use of fuel and energy resources depends is reducing the consumption of fuel for the production of electricity and heat. By skillfully using reserves, many electric power stations have achieved significant savings: 75,000 tons of fuel were saved by the Ministry of Energy of the Ukrainian SSR in eight months of this year. However, the channels for losses have not been closed everywhere, leading to significant overconsumption of coal, fuel oil and natural gas. This forces us to take all steps necessary in order to eliminate the causes of losses now, on the threstoid of the crucial winter period.

In creating fuel reserves for the winter, power workers are relying on un- questioning fulfillment of assignments to provide electric power plants with fuel on the part of coal, oil processing and gas enterprises and railroad transport. How efficiently this fuel is used will depend to a decisive degree on the fulfillment of the organizational and technological plans developed in energy combines and at electri: power stations. As was pointed out at the meeting, it is therefore necessary to establish strict control over the implementation of what has been outlined and to increase the role of socialist competition and moral and material encouragement for economizing in resources.

The partners of power workers, the consumers, may and are obligated to have an important word in the struggle for improving economy. The municipal economy of Kiev, the 8th State Ball Bearing Factory in Khar'kov and many other enterprises take a thrifty approach toward the utilization of elec- tricity. This experience must be made common knowledge and it is necessary to decisively suppress cases of waste and overconsumption of the established limits for the use of fuel, electricity and heat. Such cases still occur frequently at certain enterprises of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, construction materials, the chemical and petrochemical industry and trans- port.

The results of the activity of the national economy, the fulfillment of the plans and obligations for the current year and the start in the new year

depend to a vast degree on how well the national economy is supplied with electricity during the winter. It was emphasized at the meeting that Party, Soviet, trade union and Komsomol organs are called upon to provide effective, daily supervision over the fulfillment of quotas for extracting and trans- porting all types of fuel and saving energy resources. Achieving success

in this matter is a common task which should be solved by the combined efforts of all ministries, departments and productive collectives party to it.

Member of the Politburo and Secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party Central Committee A. A. Titarenko, Sector Chief of the Department of Machine Construc- tion of the CPSU Central Committee V. M. Frolyshev, First Deputy Minister of Energy and Electrification of the USSR Ye. I. Borisov and others spoke at

the meeting. Leading workers from the Ukrainian and Moldavian Communist Party Central Committees, the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR and Council of Ministers of the Moldavian SSR and the leaders of a number of ministries and departments of the USSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Moldavian SSR partici- pated in it.

7872 CSO: 1822




[Interview with B. V. Nikol'skiy, Deputy Chairman of the Moscow Sovint, by L. Velikanova, LITERATURNAYA GAZETA special correspondent: "Heat of the City"]

[Text] Last winter caught many of our cities unprepared. Our newspaper received complaints from Leningrad and Kazan’, Novosibirsk and Omsk.... Our readers also leveled serious complaints about winter foulups in Moscow as well. Some city services officials blamed the extremely cold weather, and not with c justification: the last time such low temperatures were recorded in Moscow for such an ex- tended period of time was 40 years ago, in the winter of 1939/40. Others, while agreeing that the winter was in- deed a severe one, at the same time mentioned, not entire- ly without irony, that neither Moscow, nor Leningrad, nor Central Russia, and least of all Siberia, are in the tropics, and therefore winter "surprises" can be expected, if not predicted. All this is behind us now, however. Muscovites were very pleased to learn that as early as May, long before the onset of the following winter, the party's city committee and the Moscow City Soviet adopted a number of decisions specifying thorough preparations for the next winter.

The questions raised in this interview go beyond the realm of household comfort. A cold apartment and other public services deficiencies, grouped into an integral category, unquestionably affect people's comfort and well- being, and become transformed from a purely personal factor into, so to speak, a societal, spiritual factor.

We will be discussing today how Moscow has prepared for this coming winter. The experience of Moscow is extreme- ly important for all: as they say, Moscow sets the tone in all things. Having learned what has been done in the


capital, municipal services officials in other Soviet cities will undoubtedly seek to emulate and consider the question of whether they are completely prepared for winter.

[Question] Esteemed Boris Vasil'yevich! Let us examine those aspects of preparing the city for winter which essentially answer only one but an ex- tremely important, one might say the most important question: will there be heat in our buildings? Or more precisely, what has been done to ensure that Muscovites be able to live and work under normal temperature condi- tions no matter how bad the weather? In this connection we should like to learn from you not simply what decisions have been made (they have been reported in the papers) but about those quite concrete measures which have followed the decisions and which will prevent a repeat of last winter's foulup. Will Muscovites be warm this winter, even if the winter is as severe as last year's?

[Answer] Preparations for winter have been so extensive and all-encompass- ing -- on the average half again as much has been spent as normal, and twice to two and a half times as much on some items -- that now we can

meet the worst weather fully armed. There still is a small "but," however, which greatly concerns many heating engineers and us on the Moscow Soviet. I should like to focus attention on this item. Heat in apsrtments is dependent not only on how the central heating system is working. Much is up to the tenants themselves. Have they done everything they can to ensure that heat does not escape from the building? We are far from confident on this score, since last winter, in spite of the bitter cold weather, repair crews, on responding to an emergency call ("The radiator has burst!..."), time and again saw that windows and doors were not sealed, and sometimes cold-weather ventilation windows were not tightly shut. The entranceways of many buildings were also not winter-sealed. Sometimes precisely this was the primary cause of heating system breakdowns. While not attempting to absolve from blame the municipal services (guilty parties in last year's foulups were severely punished) or to shift responsibility to building tenants for poor heating, I should like to cite a figure which was cal- culated for a normal Moscow winter, and certainly not for particularly bitter cold spells. Approximately 15% of heat is lost by an uninsulated apartment which in2s not been readied for winter. This increases the load on the heating system by 15-20%. And this is an enormous additional ex- penditure of energy.

[Question] I believe that what is required of us tenants is understand- able....

[Answer] Yes, they should be much more economy-conscious. In this country, for example, per capita hot water consumption is 110-130 liters per day, while the figure for the GDR, France and Italy is 80, and 100 liters maximum. And this happens only because many of us simply let the faucet run.... And now I shall relate what has been done to give the cold weather a "wara'’ reception. The volume of winter preparatory activities has totaled 3)0 million rubles in monetary terms. In order to keep life in the


city moving smoothly in the winter, even a most severe winter, measures were sequentially examined and adopted right down the entire chain of processes -- from obtaining fuel, stockpiling it, the operation of heat- supplying enterprises, right down to the customer, that is, those who receive heat. The scale of our city, and therefore of our work is such that in order to maintain normal temperatures during cold weather we must consume every 24 hours approximately 55 million cubic meters of natural gas, approximately 400 railroad cars of coal, and 500 cars of fuel oil. This is why we began with stockpiling fuel. We then proceeded to eliminate all the most vulnerable points at the heat and electric power plants.

First of all we had to insulate at these plants, which had not been a matter of concern prior to last winter's unusually bitter cold for our middle-latitude regions. In order for nonspecialists to understand what we are dealing with here, I shall discuss this important question in some- what greater detail -- the point in question is the operational readiness of heat sources and of all our heat and power facilities base. And it is immense. Almost 85% of Muscovites receive centralized heat (and I mean heat plus hot water). This is more than in any other city in the world. Thirteen big central heat and power plants and 45 large heating plants supply heat to 50,000 apartment buildings, office and industrial buildings.

[Question] Excuse me for interrupting, Boris Vasil'yevich, but a new question arises here: is such centralization a good thing? In the past a local "Uncle Vasya"” would turn up the heat, and it would be warm in the apartment. Now everything is consolidated, centralized, and sometimes cold....

[Answer] No, with todays scale we can no longer count on an "Uncle Vasya" --

we are short of manpower even with centralized heat supply. But of course that is not the only point. Development of centralized heat supply sys- tems has made it possible sharply to boost labor productivity in this sector, to eliminate the tough job of furnace stoker; to improve working conditions in boiler rooms, and to itsmrove the professional qualifications of boiler operating per_onnel. Centralized heat supply sources are located for the most part in industrial zones, far from housing, and this is also an important point -- polluting stack gases and particulates have not yet been eliminated. Of course centralization should not worsen but on the contrary should constantly improve a city's heat supply, and this is a goal toward which we ire striving in performing these winter-prepar- atory activities.

[Question] Let us return to them....

[Answer] The fact is that the 40° below zero temperatures hit primarily the heat supply sources: the machinery rooms were cold and damp, a fog hung in the air, and equipment and monitoring instruments were covered with frost and ice. At the same time the equipment was compelled to operate heavily overloaded. As a result some equipment broke down. Re- pair and adjustment of boilers, distribution pumps and other equipment have been performed for the most part during the summer and early fall.


Nevertheless a number of problems have not yet been resolved. As we know, repair and maintenance activities prior to the beginning of the heating season take four and a half months. A large part of the equipment has been overhauled during this period. But a great deal remains to be done before the winter cold arrives. And although little time remains for this to be